Maxillary sinusitis is a inflammation and blockage of the sinuses, which are small holes filled with air. It usually occurs as a result of the common cold, however, fungal, bacterial or viral infections and allergic processes can also be the cause.
The paranasal sinuses divide into the frontal sinuses (which are those that are located in the front of the skulli.e. on the forehead), the ethmoids (on the sides of the nose), and the maxillary sinuses (those found on the cheeks).
In normal situations, when a person breathes, the air passes through these sinuses without problems, but when suffering from maxillary sinusitis, some of these sinuses are blocked, so the patient suffers from discomfort and breathing difficulties.
Types of maxillary sinusitis
Depending on how it evolves, there are two types of sinusitis. On the one hand there is the Acute maxillary sinusitis and chronic maxillary sinusitis.
As for the former, you need to know the symptoms of the disease do not persist for more than four weeks. It usually appears as a result of an upper respiratory tract infection.
To diagnose it, the doctor has to look at some clinical signs such as presence of fever, nasal congestion, purulent runny nose (segregation and subsequent expulsion of copious fluid through the nostrils which forms in the nasal mucosa) and facial pain or heaviness on both sides of the face.
Chronic maxillary sinusitis characterized by causing symptoms that last more than three months. However, diagnosing this is more difficult, as there are no well-defined diagnostic criteria. Bacterial and fungal infections are also often the cause of its development.
Causes and prevention
Although we already know some of the causes why this disease can appear, there are many others that can cause it. Excess mucus and blockage of the sinuses They facilitate the reproduction of microorganisms favoring the appearance of sinusitis.
Therefore, apart from different infections and allergic processes, these are others causes of clogging and mucus secretion:
- Allergic rhinitis.
- Have a deviated septum.
- Smoking: Tobacco is also a risk factor for this disease.
- Cystic fibrosis: it is a risk factor that increases the possibility of suffering from this pathology.
- The hairs inside the sinuses (cilia) are not doing their job of clearing mucus due to a condition.
Knowing all these causes we can imagine the precautions or behaviors to be implemented to try to prevent maxillary sinusitis. On one side It is advisable to drink plenty of liquids, especially water, to prevent sinus blockage. If you often have congestion or a runny nose, one effective measure is to use a humidifier at night when you go to sleep.
Since tobacco is a risk factor for suffering from it, avoiding it will therefore be a fundamental preventive measure. If you have a respiratory infection, use decongestant drugs. And finally, in case you are an allergic person and start noticing symptoms, take the appropriate medication as soon as possible.
The most common symptoms caused by maxillary sinusitis can vary depending on how advanced the disease is. Although you mention many, keep in mind that one of the most alarming is fever. In short, the most common symptoms that sinusitis can trigger are:
- Face pain.
- Nasal discharge and obstruction.
- Cough that usually gets worse at night.
Apart from these, it is also common to hear pain and pressure behind the eyes and in the maxillofacial area, loss of smell and sore throat with dripping between nose and pharynx. In acute sinusitis these symptoms usually appear 7 days after a a cold it didn’t progress properly. If, on the other hand, the sinusitis is chronic, the symptoms will be the same but milder.
Treatment of maxillary sinusitis
The treatment of this pathology will mainly depend on the cause that produces it. Normally, when sinusitis is acute go away alone for a while. In case it is caused by an infection, its treatment requires the administration of antibiotics for about 14 days.
If antibiotic therapy fails, surgery can be used to remove pus and clean the area.
When sinusitis is chronic, it should be treated for 3 to 4 weeks. If it is caused by a fungal infection, a specific treatment for fungal infections.
Another treatment option is using nasal sprays that contain corticosteroids and antihistamineswhich aim to reduce swelling in case of nasal polyps.
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