Menu for diabetics: what foods are allowed and which ones to avoid?

For 2019, Half of the world’s diabetics didn’t know they were diabetic. Diet is essential to prevent or treat this disease. That’s why you need to provide a diabetic menu that shapes your meal plan.

Another important figure that needs to be addressed is that of prediabetics. That is, those potential diabetics whose lifestyle and disordered eating lead them to type 2 diabetes. In this sense, one third of the prediabetic population is young and productive.

Eating more legumes, whole grains, fiber and avoiding certain unhealthy foods gives good results. As promoters of health, in this article we present a weekly menu for diabetics and prediabetics to help them maintain a pattern that improves their quality of life.

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which It is manifested by an increase in glucose or blood sugar. The causes of the disease have to do with insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas that transports glucose into the cells.

It may happen that the body does not produce little or no insulin or that there is a resistance of the cells to use it. Both situations can also be combined.

On the other hand, the Diabetes update guide defines people with prediabetes as those who have higher than normal blood sugar values, but not reaching the figures for type 2 diabetes.

70% of prediabetics will develop the disease for life. Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

A team of specialists showed that, over a 3 to 5 year period, 25% of prediabetics return to a normal state of glucose tolerance and 50% remain the same. The other 25% become type 2 diabetics.

THE American Diabetes Association recognizes the following categories of pathologies already ascertained:

  • Type 1 diabetes: a destruction of the cells of the pancreas occurs, which leads to an absolute lack of insulin. Feeding themselves doesn’t help them.
  • Type 2 diabetes: there is cell resistance to insulin and a progressive deficiency of the hormone. It can be controlled with a healthy eating plan.
  • Gestational diabetes: diagnosis in pregnancy
Type 2 diabetes diet.
Type 2 diabetes is very susceptible to dietary patterns, so establishing consistent eating is part of the treatment.

Dietary schemes for the menu of diabetics and prediabetics

Magazine Spectrum of diabetes emphasizes eating patterns rather than nutrient intakes for type 2 diabetics. Indeed, according to the authors, there is no ideal percentage of calories from carbohydrates, fat or protein.

On the contrary, there would be solid evidence that dietary patterns reduce cardiovascular risk. Magazine promotes the Mediterranean diet, the low-carb diet and the vegan-vegetarian diet as healthy eating plans in diabetes. In addition, it is necessary to prevent weight gain or reduce excess weight in the case of obesity.

What happens to carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates are essential for controlling blood sugar. The recommendation for the diabetic menu is 50 to 65% of the daily energy. These can be complex, such as fiber and starch.

The glycemic index (GI) of the food must be considered in the diabetic diet. The GI indicates the rate at which sugars from various foods reach the blood.

He glycemic index it can be high (70 or more), moderate (55 to 69), or low (less than 54). This value depends on the processing, variety, method of preparation, and other factors.

Second Diabetes Foundationcooked rice has a GI of 70, while brown rice has 50. Education show that the People who eat foods with a high glycemic index are at an increased risk of metabolic syndrome..

How should carbohydrates be distributed?

A group of Japanese doctors stressed that carbohydrate consumption should be regular throughout the day, keeping the same time intervals between meals from one day to another. Regardless of the number of times they are consumed.

Savoca and his work team they also concluded that carbohydrates should not be spread across 5 or 6 meals throughout the day. But it could be effective for patients on fixed doses of intermediate-acting insulin.

Foods allowed in type 2 diabetes and prediabetes

Foods that should be part of the menu plan in diabetes and prediabetes need to have some special characteristics to help with glycemic control:

  • Legumes: they contain resistant starches that act as fiber, which helps reduce sugar absorption.
  • Whole grains: they must be whole, i.e. they must contain bran as an insoluble fibre. Among these we have oats, barley, rice, wholemeal pasta, corn and wholemeal flour.
  • Vegetables: vegetables can be eaten without problems, as their GI is low. But tapioca, squash and boiled carrot have a high GI.
  • Fruit: They must be eaten whole to take advantage of the fiber in the peel. Beware of the abuse of watermelon and dates.
  • Healthy Fats: they include olive oil, avocado, canola oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, and corn oil.
  • Milk and derivatives: consume skimmed and fermented products such as yogurt.
  • Nuts: peanuts, hazelnuts, walnuts and pistachios, among others.
  • Meats: white meats such as chicken, turkey, fish and shellfish are preferable.

foods to avoid

The foods to avoid in the menu for diabetics and prediabetics are those whose sugars are absorbed very quickly:

  • White or brown sugar: even those processed foods that contain it.
  • Sweets in general: white or milk chocolate has a high GI, as do honey and candies.
  • Sugary and alcoholic drinks: sodas, processed juices, energy drinks, and alcoholic beverages.
  • Sweetened milk products: such as condensed milk and sweetened yogurts.
Sugar prohibited in diabetes.
Simple sugar and its presence in industrialized products should be banned from the diabetic’s diet.

Sample menu for diabetics and prediabetics

Below we present a model of a weekly menu for diabetics and prediabetics, based on the healthy diet proposed by the Spanish Heart Foundation. Remember that the number of meals will depend on certain conditions of the patient. In agreement with a specialist.

Kind of food Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
Breakfast Skim milk with unsweetened cooked oatmeal + 1 serving of fruit. Coffee or infusion with skimmed milk + 2 slices of bread with virgin olive oil, tomato and skimmed cheese + 1 portion of fruit. omelette Swiss chard + salsa verde + 1 wholemeal tortilla + skim milk + 1 serving of fruit. Broccoli with ham + 2 slices of wholemeal bread + skimmed milk + peach. Cheese cauliflower + 1 wholemeal tortilla + yellow milk yogurt. 3 Pear Oatmeal Cookies + Fresh Tomato Juice + Skim Milk + Cinnamon Tea. Shredded chicken with corn + 3 wholemeal crackers + natural unsweetened orange juice + skim milk infusion.
Collation Low-fat fruit yogurt + 3 oatmeal cookies. Infused with skimmed milk + 3 wholemeal biscuits. Skimmed yogurt with nuts. Coffee with skimmed milk + 1 toasted wholemeal bread. Strawberry yoghurt smoothie. 2 whole grain toasts with skim cheese + fruit juice. Liquid yogurt + 3 wholemeal ginger biscuits.
Lunch Asparagus with vinaigrette + stuffed hake + bread + fruit skewers. Sauteed spinach with pine nuts + orange chicken + wholemeal bread + 1 serving of fruit. Boiled egg salad with beets + stewed lentils + wholemeal bread + fruit salad. Broccoli with almonds + sole with mixed salad + wholemeal bread + 1 portion of fruit. Steamed artichokes + garlic rabbit + bread + 1 portion of fruit. Chickpea salad + grilled salmon with tomato + fruit skewers. Spinach salad with rocket and walnuts + snuff grilled with roasted peppers + fruit salad.
Snack Infused with skim milk + tomato bread. 3 biscuits with skim cheese + fruit juice. Low-fat yogurt with fruit. Skim milk + 3 oatmeal cookies. Coffee + 2 toasts with skim cheese. Infused with skimmed milk + 1 toast with olive oil. Yogurt and peach smoothie.
Dinner Andalusian gazpacho + pork loin with roasted potatoes + fruit salad. Tuna salad with lettuce and tomato + spinach tortilla + wholemeal bread + 1 serving of pineapple. Burgos cheese and tomato salad + baked cod with tomatoes + wholemeal bread + 1 portion of fruit. Sauteed mushrooms + mushroom pasta + wholemeal bread + 1 serving of fruit. Steamed broccoli + tarragon chicken + wholemeal bread + fruit salad.

Vegetable skewers + prawn paste + wholemeal bread + 1 serving of milk. Steamed brussels sprouts + turkey and vegetable skewer + wholemeal bread + 1 serving of fruit.

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