The body fights against external threats to protect itself. The main responsible for the barrier function or protective shield is the so-called immune system.
AS, the human body is often in a constant war due to interacting with multiple agents. Specifically, the battle is between antigens and antibodies.
On the one hand, the former try to spread the disease. On the other hand, the latter try to protect the body.
Furthermore, the immune system is made up of a collection of cells and organs. These work as a unit against the threat.
Consequently, this is the responsible for preventing the establishment of pathogenic microorganisms. Since if they do, they could negatively affect the body through diseases.
It should be noted that the immune system develops progressively. Hence, it changes according to the different growth stages of the human being.
Once it reaches maturity, the immune system is able to expand its range.
powers of the immune system
- Recognition of microbes of different origin. This acts as they establish a first contact with the organism. This leads to the production of specific cells to act against it.
- Distinction between those molecules that are external to the body and its own. Thanks to this, the immune system manages to prevent the molecules from attacking each other.
- This aspect varies in those people who suffer from autoimmune diseases. Your immune system cannot identify when it comes to its own particles or those outside the body.
How does the immune system work?
When it comes to the functioning of the immune system, this It is characterized by acting harmoniously.
Therefore, the cells, molecules, tissues and organs that compose it do not interfere with each other. This is essential when dealing with a threat.
- Bone marrow
- lymph nodes
All these organs are the precursors of immune cells. In turn, these are mainly divided into two types of lymphocytes.
The cellularity (or ratio) of lymphocytes It is essential for the functioning of the immune system. Hence, this is crucial in any pathological situation that the body has to deal with.
- T lymphocytes
- B lymphocytes
T lymphocytes mature in the thymus. These are responsible for producing effector molecules against antigens throughout the body.
These molecules must always act together with other cells with a similar function.. Thus, they cooperate, for example, with cytotoxic lymphocytes and killer cells, also known as NK cells. (natural killer).
On the other hand, B lymphocytes are indispensable for the immune system in a mature and virgin state. This is because they are the ones who will be facing each of the antigens for the first time. Therefore, they will be in charge of releasing the protective antibodies.
The immune response is divided into two large groups
This acts immediately against microorganisms. Moreover, does not depend on the type of antigen presented. Therefore, it represents the first stage of defense against the invasion of pathogenic particles.
Moreover, establishes a number of elements that act as a physical, chemical and biological barrier. These are the fur and the mucous membrane, together with all its cellularity.
These elements are what prevent pathogens from establishing themselves. Furthermore, they act from the moment they are presented to the antibodies.
This is due to the cell lines they contain. These detect foreign agents based on their initial antimicrobial activity.
It refers to that response which, unlike the innate one, depends on the type of antigen present.
Moreover, is characterized by keeping in mind the memory immunological. Thus, after the first contact with an antigen, the second time the antibody occurs it will be able to recognize it. This allows you to attack it in a specific way.
The working mechanism of acquired immunity is totally specific. Thus, each pathogen induces an individual response to exposure to cells of the immune system.
AS, the speed and efficiency of acquired immunity will depend on the number of presentations of the same pathogen. This makes it possible to certify how optimal the immunological memory of each organism is and how to respond to it permanently.
Moreover, both types of immunity work interdependently. In this way they complement each other. Thus a collaborative dynamic is generated between the two.
These act through the immune cells present in the organs, mucous membranes and lymphoid tissues. Thanks to this, both types of immunity can provide an effective response against any harmful invading agent.
This is how the immune system works properly. Its goal is to protect the body in the presence of any infectious agent. Whether they are viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites.
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